newsr.in 2018-12-03 12:00:00
Undercover Investigation: Shocking Footage of Pangolin Poaching Uncovered Monday, 3 December 2018 ( 2 days ago ) Alarming footage captured by *World Animal Protection* and *WildCRU* (Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford) reveals the heart-breaking moment a pangolin is brutally killed for its body parts to be sold on the black market, in Assam, north-eastern India. *Highly trafficked: More than a million pangolins are believed to have been killed for the traditional Asian medicine trade between 2000-2013* The footage was captured by an undercover researcher on their mobile phone, and shows a terrified pangolin hiding from hunters in a hollowed-out tree clinging for life, as its tail is tugged. The hunters use axes to cut the tree, but failing to remove the desperate animal, they light a fire to smoke it out. As the pangolin starts to suffocate and lose consciousness it makes a bolt for freedom but is captured, bagged and taken to a hut where the next stage of the ordeal takes place. The pangolin is repeatedly bludgeoned with a machete until it can barely move. While bleeding, it is then thrown into a cauldron of boiling water possibly still alive, where its tragic struggle comes to an end. Pangolins are often referred to as the world's most trafficked mammal and this footage demonstrates the huge cruelty the animals endure when hunted. The harrowing clip is part of a two-year study by researchers from World Animal Protection and the University of Oxford, into traditional hunting practices in the state of Assam, that borders Bhutan. Interviews conducted by researchers with over 140 local hunters found that pangolins were largely targeted for their scales that are sold for a premium, with hunters earning the equivalent of four months' salary for a single pangolin. The hunters from these communities were clearly unaware of the part they are playing in the international trafficking trade. Yet the illegal traders that then sell the animal products across the borders on the black market go on to make a large profit. Pangolin scales are used in traditional Asian medicine particularly in China and Vietnam. Pangolin scales are made of keratin, the same material that makes human fingernails and hair, and they have no proven medicinal value. Pangolin meat is also considered to be a delicacy in some countries, and the scales are also used as decorations for rituals and jewellery. They are considered to be at high risk of extinction primarily as a result of illegal^1 poaching. *Gajender K Sharma, India Country Director at World Animal Protection *said,* *"Suffocated with smoke, beaten and boiled alive - this is a terrifying ordeal and Pangolins clearly suffer immensely. This footage shines a spotlight on how truly shocking the practice of hunting pangolins truly is. Not only is this a major conservation issue - it's a devastating animal welfare concern. The two species of Pangolins '*Manis crassicaudata and Manis pentadacytla*' found in India have the highest protection with both being listed on Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. We urge the central and respective state governments to take strict measures to put an end to poaching of pangolins." *Professor David Macdonald, WildCRU, Department of Zoology, Oxford University *said, "Increasing demand driven by traditional Asian medicine is making pangolins a lucrative catch. It's easy to see why they are being commercially exploited, as scales from just one pangolin can offer a life changing sum of money for people in these communities, but it's in no way sustainable. Wild pangolin numbers are beginning to plummet." Reliable estimates of how many pangolins remain in the wild are lacking, although it is thought that over a million individual pangolins were taken from the wild between 2000, and 2013^2. There are eight species of pangolin^3, all of which are considered threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species^4. "Since 1975, both the Chinese and Indian pangolins have been included in Appendix II of CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, to which an annotation was added at the 11th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2000. This annotation established zero export quotas for wild caught Asian pangolins traded for commercial purposes. Despite these measures, both species of pangolins in India continue to be exploited for local consumptive uses and are frequently found in illegal trade, both domestic and international," *Gajender* added further. World Animal Protection works tirelessly to prevent cruelty to animals around the world. Although it is well documented that pangolins are being hunted and trafficked, until now, the immense suffering and cruelty that these animals endure when they are hunted has remained relatively overlooked. To combat the global trade in their bodies and scales, and to protect pangolins from the unimaginable suffering they endure we are calling for: · Strong enforcement of national and international laws · Removal of pangolins from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China - the traditional medicine handbook for the industry · Investment in and promotion of herbal and synthetic alternatives · Combined and coordinated efforts by governments, NGOs and the traditional Asian medicine community to eliminate consumer demand for pangolin-based traditional Asian medicines, particularly in China and Vietnam · Support for alternative livelihoods, alleviation of poverty and education programmes within rural communities wherever pangolins are found globally, to stop the slaughter. *Notes to the editor* · For an interview with a spokesperson contact Shashwat Raj: firstname.lastname@example.org · All images should be credited as: © Neil D'Cruze · Watch the undercover videos of the pangolin being captured and processed and download the images here: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/j28ebudbln1fmru/AACJQTp2e41QsjIYGPpz2zHea?dl=0 · Read the full report on the cruel exploitation of wild animals here. This research represents an on-going collaboration between researchers from World Animal Protection and WildCRU University of Oxford. *Additional info* Tribes · Our study focussed on three of the predominant indigenous tribes of Assam State in Northeast India: (1) Biate; (2) Dimasa; and (3) Karbi. These tribes are characterised by unique traditions and cultures distinct from each other, and from other ethnic groups of the region. · Broadly speaking, subsistence agriculture or hunting and gathering are practiced by rural villagers belonging to all three groups. Laws in India · Selling pangolins for commercial gain in India is illegal under Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection)Act 1972. However, hunting pangolins outside of 'Reserved Forests' (i.e. protected areas) for personal use is not illegal for certain native tribal communities, such as the Biate, Dimasa and Karbitribal communities. This assumes (1) there is no contravening law made by the Regional Council on hunting; (2) the Council's law prevails over the State's law; and (3) the State Governor has not passed any law to restrict hunting. Nevertheless, the State Governor has the power to amend the laws of the Regional Council in any situation where conflict should occur. 1 - Hunting for commercial gain in India is illegal, although hunting pangolins outside of protected areas for personal use is not necessarily illegal for certain native tribal communities. In this study, many of the hunters were from tribal groups. 2 - https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/17/prop/060216/E-CoP17-Prop-08.pdf 3 - the Chinese pangolin, Indian pangolin, Sunda pangolin and Philippine pangolin, which inhabit Asia, and the tree pangolin, long-tailed pangolin, giant pangolin and Temminck's ground pangolin which occur in Africa. 4 - https://www.iucn.org/news/species/201802/scaling-pangolin-conservation-never
findmarketresearch.org 2018-11-28 03:46:00
Future Market Insights (FMI) delivers key insights on the global agriculture packaging market in its published report, titled "Global Agriculture Packaging Market: Industry Analysis 2013 - 2017 and Opportunity Assessment 2018-2028". In terms of revenue, the global agriculture packaging market is estimated to expand at a CAGR of 5.3% during the forecast period, owing to numerous factors, about which FMI offers thorough insights and forecasts in this report. Agriculture packaging is used for the storage of agricultural products such as pesticides, seeds, food grains, silage, fruits & vegetables, etc. by using pouches, bags/bins, silo bags, clamshells, bottle, trays, and bulk containers. Agriculture Packaging Market: Segmental Insights The global market for agriculture packaging is further segmented as per product type, material type, barrier type, application and region. On the basis of product type, global market for agriculture packaging is segmented into pouches, bags/bins, silo bags, clamshells, bottle, trays, bulk containers, and others. On the basis of material type, the global agriculture packaging market is segmented into plastic, paper board, glass, jute, and others. In addition, based on the barrier type, the global agriculture packaging market is segmented into low barrier, medium barrier and high barrier. Furthermore, based on the application, the global agriculture packaging market is segmented into seeds & pesticides, silage, food grains and vegetables & fruits. This report assesses trends driving growth of each market segment on the global level and offers potential takeaways that prove substantially useful for other potential market entrants in the agriculture packaging market. Agriculture Packaging Market: Regional Forecast The North America agriculture packaging market Include country level analysis for the U.S. and Canada. The U.S. agriculture packaging market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.3% over the forecast period. The Latin America agriculture packaging market include country level analysis for Brazil, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America. The Brazil agriculture packaging market is expected to expand at a CAGR of 5.2% over the forecast period. The Western Europe agriculture packaging market includes country level analysis for Germany, Italy, U.K., France, Spain, Benelux, and Rest of Europe. Germany accounts for a significant market share in the Western Europe agriculture packaging market. Request more information of Report with table of contents and Figures @ https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/rep-gb-7076 The Eastern Europe agriculture packaging market includes country level analysis for Russia, Poland, Ukraine and Rest of Eastern Europe. The Russia agriculture packaging market is expected to expand at a CAGR of 4.9% over the forecast period. The Asia Pacific excluding Japan agriculture packaging market includes country level analysis for China, India, ASEAN, Australia and New Zealand and Rest of APEJ. The APEJ agriculture packaging market represents most lucrative geographic region wherein China represents substantial incremental opportunity over the forecast period. The Middle East and Africa (MEA) agriculture packaging market includes country level analysis for GCC, South Africa, Turkey, Northern Africa and Rest of MEA. The Japan agriculture packaging market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.5% over the forecast period. Agriculture Packaging Market: Competitive Analysis In this report, we have discussed individual strategies followed by top companies in terms of enhancing their product portfolio, creating new marketing techniques, mergers and acquisitions. The 'Competitive Landscape' is included to provide report audiences with a dashboard view and company share collectively. Key players operating in the global market for agriculture packaging include Bemis Company, Inc., Sonoco Products Company, Mondi Group, LC Packaging International BV, Packaging Corporation of America, H.B. Fuller Company, Atlantic Packaging, NNZ Group, Parakh Agro Industries Ltd., International Paper Company, DS Smith Plc, Smurfit Kappa Group Plc, KapStone Paper and Packaging Corp, Silgan Holdings, Inc., Tetra Pak International S.A., Greif, Inc., Time Technoplast Ltd., Berry Global, Inc., Proampac LLC, and KlÃ¶ckner Pentaplast Group.
findmarketresearch.org 2018-11-27 09:38:00
Plastic additives are chemicals added in a polymer to modify its properties. The polymers used in plastics are combined with monomeric units and are not in their pure form, but are harmless. The objective is to improve the processing characteristics and properties of plastics and to enhance performance. These monomers are known as plastic additives and can be classified as reinforcing fibres, coupling agents, stabilizers, colorants, fillers, processing aids, flame retardants, peroxides and antistatic agents. Plastic additives enable safe handling of the plastic during the manufacture of finished products. The stabilizing plastic additives are halogen stabilizers, ultraviolet absorbers, antioxidants and biological preservatives. Also, there are processing aids such as lubricants and flow controls. The end-uses of plastic additives are in the plastic industry and its products.For example, fire retardation plastic additives are added to polymers to break them down. This ensures reduced viscosity, which is essential for moulding the plastics into various finished products. Another example is that of ultraviolet absorbers, which are added in plastic pots used in plantations, to enable resistance to ultraviolet rays. Anti-microbial plastic additives are also used in this product as well as other products, as microorganisms can decompose plastics into monomers. Lubricants minimizes both internal and external friction, helps mould release and enhance mould flow. Fillers are used to increase the volume of the plastic available and to make it cost-effective. Also, temperature resistance of plastics is enhanced by plastic additives. Additives facilitate the use of plastic in space craft due to the ability to sustain at high temperatures.Plastic additives have a large number of applications in defence, aerospace, aviation, automotive, consumer appliances, commodities, paints and coatings, FMCG and packaging industries. The global plastic additives market is forecasted to reach US $ 50 billion by 2020 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 3.8% during the forecast period.India and China are the lucrative markets due to presence of low-cost labour and raw materials. Plasticizers is the largest revenue generating segment of the plastic additives market valued at US $ 21.4 billion,followed by flame retardants with a CAGR of 5.4% projected for 2013-2020. The anti-microbial segment will also grow at a moderate rate due to increase in demand from the healthcare industry. The plastic additive industry is energy- and capital-intensive, wherein gas and oil are the major raw materials. It is easy to use and hasnumerous applications that make it an adaptable industry. Asia Pacific is the leader globally in terms of value and volume and production and consumption, and the key drivers being the surge in its automobile and infrastructure industry. Additionally, the Chinese and Indian automobile industries are expected to grow at 8% to 14% respectively during the forecast period 2014 - 2020. Plastics surfaced as an alternate solution to replace the use of metals in numerous industrial and non-industrial applications such as automotive manufacturing, mechanical fasteners, medical equipment, commercial furniture and so on. Plastic additive producers are currently focusing on developing economies such as AsiaPacific. The region accounted for around 40% revenue of the plastic additives market as of 2013, which is projected to increaseto 60% by 2020. Increasing awareness regarding conservation of depleting natural resources is expediting growth of the plastic additives market in AsiaPacific. Growth prospects in the plastic additives market are vast and numerous players in the market are constantly investing and focusing on innovations in this industry through the use of plastic additives. BASF, Chemtura Corporation, Exxon Mobil Corporation, Clariant Ltd., Bayer AGand Kaneka are some major players in the plastic additives market. The overall chemical industry has grown at around 2% to 5%, which is positive sign for the evolving plastic additives market. Request to Browse Report Sample @ https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/rep-ap-79 Plastic additives is an evolving industry with a whole range of property extenders, modifiers, stabilizers and processing aids. In today's world, each activity of modern day life in influenced by plastics and it is widely dependedupon. Just to name a few, auto parts, medical equipment, telecommunication instruments, electronic devices, entertainment and leisure objects, insulators andother gadgets are produced from plastic, which would not be possible without plastic additives. Plastic additives are safe, offer strength, give aesthetic appearance, last longer and reduce production costs.
findmarketresearch.org 2018-11-21 07:28:00
Persistence Market Research digs deep into the global automotive thermostat market and fetches key information through structured market research. The report, "Automotive Thermostat Market Global Industry Analysis 2013 - 2017 and Forecast 2018 - 2026" gauges the market and predicts the future demographic and changes. The report reveals that the single valve type design segment will dominate the market and is estimated to hold more than a 67% market value share. It is expected to grow with a CAGR (Value) of 3.5% by the end of the forecast period (2018 - 2026). The present estimated value of the global automotive thermostat market is more than US$ 2,182.8 Mn in 2018 and the market will expand with a CAGR of 3.3% to reach US$ 2,820.5 Mn by the end of 2026. Global Automotive Thermostat Market Dynamics The global automotive thermostat market is estimated to be driven by the increasing production of vehicles across the globe. Healthy growth in the automotive industry will also be a prime factor supplementing market growth. Moreover, as the emphasis on improving engine performance increases across the globe, the demand for advanced engine cooling system components is expected to augment in the near future. This is one of the prime reasons expected to promote the growth of automotive thermostats in the near future. Moreover, as the adoption of hybrid vehicles increases with increasing investments in developing charging infrastructure in developed regions such as North America and Europe, the demand for automotive thermostats is expected to further ramp up in the coming years. The demand for heavy commercial vehicles for use in agricultural purposes in regions such as Latin America has also increased. This is expected to further increase the demand for automotive thermostats over Furthermore, the global premium vehicle market is comparatively less affected by the financial crisis and has shown growth driven by developing markets. This is expected to create opportunities for the augmentation of the automotive thermostat market in the coming years. On the other hand, one of the key challenges, which may hamper the sales revenue of thermostat manufacturers is the integration of smart technology in engine thermal management, which may subsequently eliminate the use of thermostats. Furthermore, counterfeiting in the aftermarket is one of the key reasons which may pose a threat to the growth of the market. As counterfeit thermostats penetrate the market, product quality decreases, which may hamper the brand image of key manufacturers, subsequently restraining the growth of the automotive thermostat market in the coming years. //www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/21682 Global Automotive Thermostat Market Forecast Market insights suggests that the overall width of the global automotive thermostat market will expand within Several positive changes are expected to fuel the growth of the market. By thermostat type, the housed thermostat segment will play a pivotal role in building market revenue and is expected to occupy a significant share of the market. The report hints that the housed thermostat segment by type will account for a value share of 68.0% in the global automotive thermostat market by 2018. Amongst the major markets, Europe is expected to show promising results within The region is estimated to represent a 40.2% market value share in 2018 and the market is estimated to expand with a CAGR of 3.2% within the stipulated time period. The sales revenue of Europe is estimated to surge up to US$ 1,134.6 Mn by the end of 2026. The markets globally will remain fertile and vibrant during Global Automotive Thermostat Market: Competitive Landscape Some of the key market participants reported in this study of the global automotive thermostat market are BorgWarner Inc., AC Delco, Gates Corporation, Continental AG, Hella KGaA Hueck & Co., MAHLE GmbH, MotoRad Ltd., Robert Bosch GmbH, Valeo SA, Stant Manufacturing, Inc., Tama Enterprises Co., Ltd., Nippon Thermostat Co. Ltd., Vernet SAS, Ningbo Xingci Thermal Electric Appliances Co. Ltd. and Kirpart A.S.
indiatimes.com 2018-11-21 00:00:00
Meerut: In a shocking CCTV footage that has come to surface, four youths can be seen loading their weapons and waiting for someone in the dead of the night. Soon after, one of them is seen firing indiscriminately at a vehicle in the early hours of Tuesday. The incident that resembles a scene straight from some Bollywood flick occurred in the Nauchandi area wherein a man along with his friends ambushed an SUV . The targeted vehicle overruns the attacker and escapes. No one is told to be injured. An FIR has been filed against Shokinder Dhaka, Karan Saini, Rishabh Kumar, Himanshu Singh and two unknown under section 307 and section 25 of the IPC Arms Act for carrying illicit weapons. Two accused Shokinder Dhaka and Karan Saini have been arrested. According to SP city Ranvijay Singh, Navdeep Pradhan (who is the son of a BJP leader Sanjeev Pradhan) and others had gone for a party in Modinagar on Monday and while returning they had a tiff after which Shokinder allegedly pulled out his illegal weapon and fired in the air. Later, when they reached Jai Devi Nagar which is in Nauchandi area, Shokinder Dhaka along with his other friends against fired shots at Navdeep who was in SUV. However no one was injured in the incident."
speakingtree.in 2018-11-18 00:00:00
Farm Waste To Reduce Pollution Nov 18, 2018 COMMENTS Add to Spiritual Diary Clean, breathable air is not a luxury; it's a basic human right, says SWAMI CHIDANAND SARASWATI, suggesting that we turn agricultural waste into anaerobic boards to improve air quality This year Deepavali turned bleak and smoggy in Delhi. Instead of brightly burning oil lamps lighting the night sky, the sky was dark with poisonous haze. News of hazardous and toxic air quality made headlines. The effects of firecrackers and burning agricultural waste from the recent harvest have turned the nation's capital into a gas chamber. Flights are delayed and even cancelled, schools are closed and no one can stroll happily outside for morning or evening walks due to the deadly air. Even walking for a short distance outside has become a health risk. Air filters in our homes, offices and even cars is the new norm for those who have the luxury to purchase them. Those who don't have the money to buy them suffer in silence. Both groups have conceded, helplessly, to living, and raising their children, in a cloud of toxicity. Clean Air Often when people from Delhi visit Parmarth Niketan, Rishikesh, they exclaim how lucky we are to have clean air. But we have forgotten that clean, breathable air is not a luxury. It's a basic human right. We are violating our own rights, cutting the very roots of the trees that give us shade, clean air and nurture our future generations, in order to build factories, shopping malls and new condo complexes We Can Overcome Fortunately, the dark cloud does not have to hang precariously over our lives forever. There are solutions that are possible, available and do-able. It simply requires that we wake up, pay attention and make finding a solution to pollution our priority. It requires us to step up and ensure our own right to a healthy life with healthy air. The time to find and implement these solutions for the nearly 26.5 million people in the national capital region has come, and that time is now. THE DARK CLOUD DOES NOT HAVE TO HANG PRECARIOUSLY OVER OUR LIVES FOREVER. THERE ARE SOLUTIONS THAT ARE POSSIBLE, AVAILABLE AND DO-ABLE. IT SIMPLY REQUIRES THAT WE WAKE UP, PAY ATTENTION AND MAKE FINDING A SOLUTION TO POLLUTION OUR PRIORITY One excellent win-win solution is Agriboard Technology, a solution that benefits all "” farms, farmers and families can be happy and healthy. The same agricultural waste that currently gets burnt by farmers, turning the air as far away as in Delhi into toxic gas, can become a boon instead of a bane. In Agriboard Technology, the agricultural waste is utilised for its agriculture fibres and natural binders to make highly compressed anaerobic boards, and fixed along with a steel frame to create a strong structure. This straw is cleaned and then compressed beneath thousands of pounds of weight. The board is then heated at a very high temperature, giving it durability and strength. After intense research and development this board is not only found to be strong and durable, but also economically and environmentally friendly. It can be used to build homes and all other buildings, too. Instead of having to burn their waste, the waste will be purchased from farmers to make agriboards "” putting much-needed money in the farmers' pockets and keeping much needed clean air in the skies above Delhi. Agriboard is a low-cost biodegradable and completely recyclable product. These boards are able to face fire and earthquakes and are secure from moisture and can even be made waterproof. Imagine a building material that is fire-proof, earthquake-proof, termite-proof and water-proof. The structures made of agriboards can be assembled very quickly and are easy to maintain. Affordable Homes Agriboard can also successfully be used for other construction as well, including public toilets, multistorey buildings and hospitals. At a cost of only Rs 1,000 per sq ft, these structures can be the building foundation of homes for people in the economically weaker sections of society, for whom owning their own home is still a distant dream. Agriboard is just one of the many, immediately implementable solutions that can help our beautiful, sacred country develop economically while also ensuring that the rights of the people to a healthy life are upheld. For more information email to email@example.com
thehindubusinessline.com 2018-11-04 15:21:00
Mumbai, November 4 The State government brought in a new amendment to the Maharashtra Agricultural Produce Marketing Act of 1963, to provide additional avenues to the farmers for selling produce without any hindrances from the local markets. Under the previous act of 1963, all the agriculture products had to be sold through a market yard, which controlled by the local Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC). But as the economic liberalisation started post-1990s, Maharashtra APMC was seen as a major hurdle for farm liberalisation. In the last 15 years, the act has undergone major amendments. Latest amendments The latest amendment further unshackles the sale of farm products by the farmers, it brings in new concepts such as Market Yard of National Importance and defines APMC infrastructure such as Warehouse, Silos and Cold Storage facilities. Maharashtra's Minister for Cooperation, Subash Deshmukh, in a telephonic interaction with BusinessLine said the Ordinance is an attempt to bring in competition in the Agriculture produce market, which will ensure that the farmers will get better rates. It will provide an alternative to the farmers from the confines of the APMC markets, where they will be able to sell all their goods through mutual agreement with sellers. But to prevent any kind of exploitation in such transactions, the Maharashtra State Agriculture Marketing Board will have supervisory powers, he said. Citing the example of the exponential growth of the sugar industry in Maharashtra, Deshmukh said when the sugar industry was under control, there were fewer sugar factories and sugarcane sale was confined to certain geographical area. There have even been occasions in past where framers have burnt excess sugarcane due to lack of buyers. "Today, the situation is very different due to sugar decontrol order and the proliferation of sugar factories across Maharashtra. The farmers can sell their sugarcane to the sugar factory of their choice. Due to the competition, the farmers get bonus plus fair and reasonable price (FRP) for their sugarcane. A similar attempt is being made for other farm products," he said. He added that the Ordinance will disrupt the market affecting the interests of the middlemen but it will benefit the farmers. A senior Maharashtra government official said that when the farm products enter the APMC market, the price increases by a minimum of 14 per cent due to the commission of agents and handling charges of the APMC. But this additional money never reaches the farmers. It gets divided among the market intermediaries. Published on
moneycontrol.com 2018-11-02 03:30:00
India, for the third time, extended the deadline for the imposition of higher customs duties on 29 US products, including almond, walnut and pulses, by another 45 days until December 17, the government said November 1. According to a notification by the finance ministry, the implementation of the duty hike has been postponed until December 17. The commerce ministry had asked its finance counterpart to extend the deadline for the rollout of duty hike further. In June, India decided to impose retaliatory tariffs from August 4. But it was extended by another 45 days till September 18 and then again till November 2. As part of imposition of higher import duties, New Delhi has notified higher tariffs on several products. While import duty on walnut is to be hiked to 120 percent from 30 percent, duty on chickpeas, Bengal gram (chana) and masur dal will be hiked to 70 percent from 30 percent. Levy on lentils will be hiked to 40 percent from 30 percent. Other products which would attract higher duties include boric acid, phosphoric acid, diagnostic reagent, flat rolled products of iron, certain flat rolled products of stainless steel. The duty hike move by India was in retaliation to US President Donald Trump's March 9 decision to impose heavy tariffs on imported steel and aluminium items. Senior officials of India and the US are in discussions to finalise a kind of trade deal. Both the sides holding two track discussions -- to increase trade in short and medium term, and identify long term trade potentials. India is pressing for exemption from high duty imposed by the US on certain steel and aluminium products, resumption of export benefits to certain domestic products under their generalised system of preferences (GSP), greater market access for its products from sectors, including agriculture, automobile, auto components and engineering. As many as 3,500 Indian products from sectors such as chemicals and engineering get duty-free access to the US market under the GSP, introduced in 1976. On the other hand, the US is demanding greater market access for its farm and manufacturing products, including medical devices. India's exports to the US in 2017-18 stood at $47.9 billion, while imports were $26.7 billion. The trade balance is in favour of India. Meanwhile, the US on November 1 ended duty-free concessions on import of about 50 Indian products, mostly from handloom and agriculture sectors. These goods were so far availing duty-free access to the US market under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). In April, the US announced eligibility review of India for the GSP. According to the USTR, the total US imports under GSP in 2017 was $21.2 billion, of which India was the biggest beneficiary with $5.6 billion, followed by Thailand ($4.2 billion) and Brazil ($2.5 billion). Out of $5.6 billion, these 50 products accounted for $72.35 million worth of duty-free exports to the US in 2017.